Aside from the usual few fixes, I'm excited about built-in support for Will Drewry's seccomp filter, which landed in Ubuntu. To give it a whirl, you'll need a 64-bit Ubuntu 12.04 (beta at time of writing), and a 64-bit build of vsftpd.
Why all the excitement?
vsftpd has always piled on all of the Linux sandboxing / privilege facilities available, including chroot, capabilities, file descriptor passing, pid / network / etc. namespaces, rlimits, and even a ptrace-based demo (never quite production).
seccomp filter brings a new level of power and granularity in the form of the ability to permit, deny or emulate raw syscalls, with some control over the arguments. In many ways it's similar to what can be achieved with a clunky ptrace-based sandbox -- but it will go a lot faster, have a lot less bugs and not be prone to various fail-open conditions. In other words, it's designed to be used as a security technology whereas ptrace() is not.
Some of the more compelling points of seccomp filter include:
- Ability to restrict access to the kernel API. In all likelihood, a compromise of a vsftpd process wouldn't be much use to an attacker due to the use of chroot() and namespaces. The attacker would be looking to escalate privileges and the most fruitful way to do this would be going after a kernel bug. By only allowing a small subset of syscalls, the number of kernel APIs exposed to attack is minimal.
- Application-defined. An unprivileged application can install a filter. This has various benefits. For example, a future Chromium will likely ship without the need for a "setuid helper". A future vsftpd might offer robust sandboxing even when not started as root.
- Compatible with syscall emulation. Doing access control on user-space pointer arguments is racy with ptrace and impossible with seccomp filter. However, a denied syscall can be emulated via a SIGSYS signal. In the signal handler, something like an open() call can be "faked", perhaps even to the extent of sending the filename over a local socketpair for validation and delegated open. Very tasty. I'll look at writing a general wrapper if no-one else does.
- Defense against glibc vulnerabilities. I'll go into this in more detail in another post, but a recent glibc memory corruption vulnerability illustrated that glibc takes an "interesting" code path in response to detecting bad situations. This failure code path ended up making the glibc bug highly exploitable. Fortunately, the syscalls needed by the "interesting" code path don't need to be permitted in a seccomp filter policy, thus blocking much of the problem.
It's all very powerful, and vsftpd isn't the only exited consumer. There's already a patch in OpenSSH, to be released with version 6.
Personally, I'm not sure I have the skill to attack vsftpd + seccomp filter. Even if I were to achieve code execution, the set of permitted syscalls is pretty limited. If you look at some of the memorable Linux kernel vulns of recent years: AF_CAN by Ben Hawkes, sock_sendpage by Julien Tinnes and Tavis Ormandy, or sys_tee -- all of these would be blocked either at the syscall, or syscall argument validation level. If you go back to 2003, there's brk(), which would probably have done the trick. If you know of any other examples, I'd love to collect them.